|EDITOR'S CHOICE ARTICLES||Aug/Sept 1998 Issue|
Were They Astrologers? — Big League Scientists and Astrology
From a social perspective, science is a belief system that interprets the world according to a certain set of expectations, much like a religion. Science is also a method, supposedly unbiased, of organizing and measuring nature. Ultimately, though, this approach assumes that reality can be divided and that objective consciousness is a fact. Objective consciousness is not necessarily a fact - it's a bias, just like any religion.
Science lays a mathematical framework onto the natural world. The mathematical framework can consist of formulae, graphs, or statistics. All sorts of information can then be organized and placed in a hierarchy or other arrangement. The results obtained from this belief system and methodology have been spectacular, and the human race has experienced material progress at a rate never before seen in history.
But science gets more complicated when you bring in the social dimension. Scientists are hominids, and, like other primates, they form pecking orders.(1) Pecking orders work by exclusion. Some scientists, like many religious leaders of our culture, think they have a monopoly on truth. Truth is, their social pyramid and its official ideology are a real obstacle in the way of human spiritual progress.
Today, scientists have been known to attack astrology vehemently. The odd thing is that modern science actually developed out of astrology and a few other related disciplines of the ancient and medieval world. As recently as 300 years ago, many astronomers knew a good deal about astrology. Four hundred years ago many astronomers practiced astrology. Five hundred years ago every astronomer was, more or less, also an astrologer. We've sure fallen a long way since then! Let's look back at some famous scientists, big names in all the science textbooks, and see what their stance was in regard to astrology.
Nicolaus Copernicus was born on February 14, 1473 Old System (OS), (February 28, 1473 New System [NS]),(2) at 4:48 p.m. LMT, in Torun, Poland. (Lois Rodden, Astro-Data II, from astrologers present at his birth, A data.)
Nicolaus Copernicus was born in what is now Poland. He studied liberal arts, medicine, and law in Krakow, as well as Bologna and Padua in Italy. He was a classic Renaissance man who did just about everything, including building his own astronomical instruments and designing his own astronomical system. He wasn't much of an observational astronomer, but he was a good mathematician who made his contribution to astronomy by reorganizing existing facts and data. Near the end of his life, in 1543, he published the results of his mathematical manipulations under the title Of the Revolving Celestial Orbs. His ideas preoccupied astronomers for the next 100 years.
Many historians set the beginnings of the scientific revolution, and certainly the astronomical revolution, with Copernicus. He proposed a model of the solar system with the Sun in the center and his model was considerably simpler than previous models, specifically the Ptolemaic model with its 80 epicycles to explain retrogradation.(3) The response among the thinkers of his time to these innovations and improvements was considerable. For decades after his death, his ideas were debated and commented upon. His work, along with the appearance of the supernova of 1573, was instrumental in undermining the reigning scientific paradigms of the times, the Ptolemaic and Aristotelian models of the cosmos.
For 1500 years, the astronomy of Ptolemy and the cosmology of Aristotle held together a scientific world view, one that was inclusive of astrology. These two thinkers from the ancient world had described nature in such a way that the astrological influence of the stars and planets was absolutely logical. Ptolemy's earth-centered model of the solar system, as bizarre as it seems to us today, worked well enough to be used to create ephemerides of the planets. Ptolemy also wrote "the book" on astrology, his Tetrabiblos. Aristotle's layered heavens, in which the higher levels of the planets could influence the earth at the center, were an obvious rationale for astrology.
In the Ptolemaic model, the earth was stationary and the stars whooshed around it every 24 hours. Copernicus's astronomical revolution reduced the number of epicycles that the planets make in their orbits and allowed the earth to rotate, something that made the movement of the stars more comprehensible. His third revolutionary idea was to put the Sun in the center of the solar system - well, almost. It turns out that in his system, the Sun is not exactly at the center of the earth's orbit. The Sun stands just to the side, which must have bothered Copernicus, as we shall see.
To my knowledge, Copernicus was no more into astrology than anyone else of his time. However, astrology was part of one larger body of knowledge called science. Therefore, he had to know something about it, but he may not have practiced it directly in the sense of casting charts for people. The most learned men of the time couldn't be bothered with horoscopes; they had more important things to do, like understanding the design of the solar system itself. By the mid 16th century, the actual practice of astrology had definitely become a low-class business for many reasons. Two of these were Pico della Mirandola's extreme attack on astrology published in 1497, Disputationes Adversus Astrologiam (Disputations Against Astrology), and the 1524 world flood predictions, which were a fiasco for the field.(4) However, theoretical astrology was still very much a part of a scientific education back then, though many were trying hard to reconcile it with the intense religious revival of the 16th century.
One of the problems in astronomy/astrology that Copernicus and his colleagues faced was the lack of accurate planetary tables. The existing tables used to calculate planets' places were not working so well anymore - in fact, they were terrible. The tables would give a position for Mars, but when you looked in the sky for it, it wasn't there. Ptolemy's system was showing its weaknesses. How could any self respecting Renaissance man cast a horoscope when he knew that the tables were faulty? The task for the educated astronomer/astrologer was clear: Chart out the heavens and make a model that could accurately predict where a planet would be in the future. Copernicus, like Brahe and Kepler after him, set to work on this problem, an astronomical problem that didn't hinge at all on whether astrology was real or false.
So to what extent was Copernicus an astrologer? There is one aspect of his writings that shows him to have been at least somewhat astrologically motivated. He put the Sun in the center of his system. He was, again like many others of his age, influenced by Pythagorean and Hermetic ideas, and the enthroning of the Sun in the center of things made perfect sense. In his own words:
Brahe was born on December 14, 1546 OS (December 24, 1546 NS), at 10:47 a.m. LMT, in Knudstrup, Scania (Skaane), Denmark. (Lois Rodden, Astro-Data II, "from a copy of his own chart," A data.)
Denmark produced one of the greatest astronomer/astrologers that ever lived, Tycho Brahe. Brahe got an early start in the starry sciences and was reading Ptolemy by age 14. At 17, he was making his own astronomical observations and found that the ephemerides of his day, the Alphonsine Tables, were off by a month in regard to Jupiter and Saturn. He apparently was interested in astrology because he kept a book of his friends' horoscopes during his early years.(6)
In 1572, a new star appeared in the sky, one that set Brahe's career in motion. The supernova of 1572 had only one known precedent in the West, and that had occurred in 125 B.C.E. Brahe meticulously observed and measured the star and published an astrological report on it. This report, called The New Star, contained 27 pages of precise measurements, followed by an analysis of its astrological effects. Brahe thought the star to be related to the preceding New Moon of November 5, 1572, which, he believed, was ruled by Mars. He also thought that, since the new star was related by its pole to the sign Aries, the Martian influence was reiterated. His astrological analysis suggested that the star was a forerunner of vast changes in politics and religion and that its influence would begin nine years after the 1583 Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in Pisces. This conjunction was the conclusion of a cycle of conjunctions of these two planets, which he interpreted as an indication of the impending birth of a new age. Brahe also predicted that someone born in 1592 would bring great changes that would reach a peak in 1632. He specified that the area near Finland would be a source of change.
It is interesting to note that some of Brahe's predictions seem to have been fulfilled by the greatest champion of Protestantism in the 17th century. Gustavus Adolphus was born in 1594 and reached his glory in 1632. Finnish regiments were noteworthy for their support of him on the battlefield.
There is no question about it, Brahe did astrology, but he was frustrated by the lack of good ephemerides. He set out to do something about this problem and eventually accumulated the best set of astronomical records ever made in the West up to that time. Along the way, he published a number of astrological predictions and calendars, lectured on astrology at the University of Copenhagen, and regularly gave astrological readings to his patron, King Frederick II. In 1577, a comet appeared and Brahe published a detailed astronomical and astrological account of it. In it, he stated that he "did not consider astrology a delusive science when it is kept within bounds and not abused by ignorant people." Brahe's great observatory on the island of Hveen was called Uraniborg. It was here, in his later years, that he worked with Johannes Kepler.
Tycho Brahe was a classic transitional astronomer of high birth, knowledgeable of astrology, but disgusted with the low levels on which most of its practitioners operated. Brahe spoke for the rational exercise of free will. He believed that taking action could moderate or control astrological effects, a very mature view, astrologically speaking.
Galileo was born on February 16, 1564 OS (February 26, 1564 NS), at 3:00 p.m. LMT, in Pisa, Italy. According to Nick Kollerstrom's book, Interface: Astronomical Essays for Astrologers, several charts are available for Galileo, ranging from the 14th to the 16th of February. Galileo's own notebooks suggest that he was rectifying his chart and seemed to have settled on the 16th at about 3:00 p.m. Lois Rodden's Astro-Data II uses February 25, 1564 NS (February 15, 1564 OS), at 3:14:25 p.m. LMT, B data. The Blackwell Collection shows a birth time of 2:32:11 p.m., also on the 15th.
When I was studying physics and the history of science as an undergraduate in the early 1970s, there was only one way that Galileo was presented - as the first modern scientist. He appeared to be perfect for the role. He used scientific gadgets (telescopes), did experiments (dropped balls from towers), and applied math to nature (acceleration). He was so modern that the Church threatened to torture him unless he abandoned his support for the Copernican model of the solar system. Somewhere, though, I read that he once calculated a horoscope or two. This was downplayed by the science writers who said that he did this early in his career and then got over it.(7) What the historians and science writers generally don't say is that Galileo was a mathematicus, implying skill in math, astronomy, and also astrology.
Recently, a different view has emerged. Apparently Galileo was indeed knowledgeable of astrology. He cast many horoscopes, and he even worked at rectifying his own chart. This new information about Galileo comes via the research of Italian astrologer, Grazia Mirti, who presented her findings at the 1992 Astrological Association Conference and later published them in an Italian journal.(8) Nick Kollerstrom used her research as the basis for his English language article on Galileo.(9) It turns out that Galileo was later "sanitized" by biographers who, when forced to account for his horoscopes, either made comments about his "dark side" or found reasons to point out that he was a bad astrologer.
The evidence suggests that Galileo was involved with astrology for a long time, probably most of his life. In 1604, he was accused of practicing "astral determinism" on his wealthy clients. In 1609, the Duchess of Tuscany asked Galileo to rectify the chart of her husband, the Grand Duke. Also in 1609, he published a short work that included an astrological delineation of Jupiter in the Midheaven of Cosimo de Medici's horoscope. In 1613, he drew up charts for his daughters. What he saw must have caused some consternation, for he then placed the daughters in a monastery for life. In 1632, Galileo published his major work, Dialogues Between Two World Systems. It turns out that one of the major characters in the dialogue was, in real life, a friend of Galileo's who would consult with him about primary directions. The last horoscope cast by Galileo is dated 1625, when he was 61. Finally, the contents of Galileo's library reveal 14 books on astrology and many others on occult philosophy. His copy of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos was apparently annotated, but has unfortunately been lost. So much for the "Mister Clean" of modern science.
Kepler was born on December 27, 1571 OS (January 6, 1572 NS), at 2:37 p.m. LMT (2:06 GMT), in Weil der Stadt, Germany. Kollerstrom notes in his book, Interface, that Kepler himself cited this time of birth. Rodden's Astro-Data II shows the same data as appearing in Kepler's book, Harmonics, Book IV, A data.
Kepler is a great embarrassment to the scientific community, though they cover this up with smoke and mirrors. There is no denying that this great scientist - the man who gave Newton the clues he needed - not only practiced astrology, he liked it. In fact, Kepler's motivations were so cosmologically astrological that historians paint him as having one foot in the Middle Ages and one foot in the modern world. Science textbooks sanitize this image and focus almost entirely on his scientific achievements. There's a famous quote from Kepler that we've all heard in one form or another. In his 1610 publication, Third Party Intervening, in which he discussed the conflicts between astrology and astronomy, he advised readers critical of astrology "not to throw the baby out with the bath water."
Johannes Kepler came from a family of degenerates and psychopaths. His father was a mercenary adventurer and his mother was accused of consorting with the devil. This low background probably made it easier for Kepler to practice astrology in an age when aristocrats kept their hands clean of it. He worked his way out of his birth predicament by studying in seminary, and at 23 he was offered a teaching post in Graz, Austria. There he taught math and astronomy, but he was also required to publish astrological annuals. Clearly, math, astronomy, and astrology were so closely linked then that anyone knowledgeable of one would, of necessity, have to know something of the others. This was my point in regard to Copernicus. Of course he knew about astrology - any astronomer of his time did. He just didn't care to lower himself into the world of horoscope readers.(10) Kepler, on the other hand, came from a lower place on the socioeconomic ladder and evidently wasn't bothered as much by such things.
In 1597, Kepler published his first book, The Mysterious Cosmos. In it, he established the framework of what was to be his life's work: a metaphysical interpretation of the cosmos in the tradition of Pythagorean mysticism. He introduced his ideas about the relationships between the orbits of the planets, the tones of the musical scale, and the properties of the five perfect geometric solids. In brief, he attempted to show mathematically that the orbits of the planets could be inscribed within the limits established by the five perfect solids, and that these corresponded to the astrological properties of the planets and the proportions of the musical scale. For example, the perfect solid of Saturn is the cube. The parameters of Saturn's orbit are such that they are delimited by the parameters of a giant, imaginary cube in space. The same was argued for the other four planets (Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury) and the perfect solids (the tetrahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, and octahedron, respectively). One thing that makes Kepler's metaphysical work noteworthy is that he uses scientific methods, not appeals to authority or the Bible, to argue his case for the model he presents. This was a very modern approach at the time.
In 1600, Kepler began to work with Tycho Brahe. When Brahe died the following year, he inherited his position as imperial mathematicus (read "royal astrologer") to Rudolph II in Prague. Kepler never lost interest in his model of the universe but realized that he needed to do some tough work with Mars's orbit in order to make the parts fit more tightly. With Brahe's state-of-the-art observations of Mars, Kepler was able to solve some very sticky astronomical problems, and he published them in his 1609 book The New Astronomy. Scientists love this book because it is basically an astronomy and math book. In it, he presents his first two laws of planetary movement and solves the problems of Mars's orbit. It was an exercise in math, motion, and physics.
Between 1612 and 1626, Kepler worked as provincial mathematicus ("personal astrologer") in Linz, the capital of upper Austria. During this time, he published the best ephemerides of the century and also his third book, The Harmony of the World. This work was the climax of his lifelong obsession with astrology, astronomy, numbers, and music. Kepler himself thought this book to be the best thing that had come along in metaphysics since Plato. Not many others agreed, however. Metaphysical philosophy, primarily Pythagoreanism and Hermeticism, was on the way out. The Protestant fundamentalists, who were shaping the mindset of the times, couldn't accept that way of thinking, and their rejection made it unfashionable for scientists, mostly Protestant, to take it seriously. But Kepler was a genius on many levels; buried in this work was his third planetary law. Years later, Isaac Newton discovered it and made a name for himself as the greatest scientist of his time.
Kepler's astrological writings have been suppressed. The Mysterious Cosmos has never been translated into English. The Harmony of the World was only recently translated from the German, but The New Astronomy, his math and physics book, has long been available. Kepler wrote about 80 other essays and treatises on astrology and astronomy, only a few of which are available to English readers.(11) In spite of what skeptical debunkers would have us believe, Kepler was a metaphysically-oriented astrologer who was a whiz at geometry and did good science. He introduced a number of minor aspects, which included the sesquiquadrate, the quintile, and the biquintile. He attempted to reform astrology by emphasizing the symmetry of the planets and dispensing with the zodiac. He also worked with harmonics. Uranian astrology of the 20th century has built a system based on many of his ideas. Other so-called pioneers of astrology in this century have been deeply influenced by him. Kepler is, without a doubt, one of astrology's greats.
Sir Isaac Newton
Newton was born on December 25, 1642 OS, (January 4, 1643 NS), at 1:00 a.m. LMT, in Woolsthorpe, England. Lois Rodden's Astro-Data III cites the Astrological Journal, March 1962, as giving this time, C data. The Blackwell Collection quotes F. Manuel's biography, A Portrait of Isaac Newton, 1968: "Born an hour or two after midnight . . .," B data.
By the mid 17th century, it was obvious that the most influential Western thinkers were "going scientific." The mainstream of Western thought had become critical, skeptical, and mathematical. Nature had become an object to control and few were interested in mystically merging with it anymore. The greatest scientist of the age was Isaac Newton, a man who had a tremendous influence on his peers and is still recognized today as a giant in physics. Newton came up with some brilliant solutions to the problems of motion, solutions that happened to be based on Kepler's earlier work. His treatment of gravity, now regarded as his greatest work, was fantastic. It allowed for the exact prediction of the location of a physical body in the future. Exact predictions, repeatable and obvious to anybody who cared to check, were now possible, but these only worked on the material universe. Mathematics was the magic that made such predictions possible.
Prediction was, and still is, the goal of science. Newton and others were leaders in the movement to shift the magic of prediction away from sloppy astrological prediction to precise, mathematically elegant predictions related to physical bodies. All of this ultimately resulted in the separation of man and nature. The implications contained within the god doctrines of the Judeo-Christian tradition, which had been cooking in the collective mind of Europe for at least a thousand years, had finally become scientific law. Nature was dead; man was sacred. Science measured dead matter while man's metaphysical life was left to the priests of Yahweh, the portable god that is divorced from nature. Science didn't flourish in India or China, where different religions, more nature friendly, held the intellectual and moral ground.
Newton was a strange and troubled man who once had a nervous breakdown. He did all he could to cover up those things about himself that would adversely affect his reputation. This cover-up persisted until 1936, when his unpublished manuscripts were auctioned off by Sotheby's. It then became apparent that Newton actually saw the universe as a riddle that could be read only through the discovery of certain mystic clues. It turns out that Newton was a closet Hermeticist. He studied alchemy for many years and wrote a book on the precession of the equinoxes and ancient kingdoms. Alchemy, of course, involves some astrological symbolism, so Newton must have known something about astrology. Dating historic events by the precession of the equinoxes (though not suggesting that there was any causal connection) is certainly a close brush with astrology. However, I know of no solid evidence that Isaac Newton was interested in pure astrology.
Many astrology books cite Newton as a defender of astrology. The story goes that when his colleague Edmund Halley put down astrology, Newton stood up to him and said "Sir, I have studied it, you have not." It appears that there is no evidence to support this quote and that the error has been passed down through succeeding astrology books.(12)
Carl Gustave Jung
Carl Jung was born on July 26, 1875, in Kesswil, Switzerland. Lois Rodden's Astro-Data II reports that, by Jung's personal report, his birth occurred "when the last rays of the setting sun lit the room." Birth times range from 7:20 p.m. to 8:45 p.m. Locations vary from Thurgen to Kesswil to Bale to Zurich, all in Switzerland, (dirty data).
As a psychologist, C.G. Jung is not in the same category (astronomy and physics) as the "hard" scientists previously discussed. He is, however, such a major figure in modern thought that I thought he should be included in this parade of would-be astrologers. Jung is, without question, a very important figure in the history of psychology, philosophical metaphysics, and astrology.
Carl Gustave Jung, along with Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, was one of the first modern explorers of the human mind. He started out in Zurich, making a name for himself early on with his work on word association tests and the grouping of ideas in the unconscious. His term for the latter was "complex," which was later adopted by the Freudian and Adlerian schools. (Jung was never a student of Freud, as some Freudians would like to believe; he was a colleague.)
Jung had a deep interest in subjects that challenged human understanding. While a student, he was witness to some spiritualist phenomena, and in 1902 he published a thesis titled On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena. Jung became interested in astrology as early as 1911. In a letter to Freud at this time, he explained that he was examining astrology because he thought it was "indispensable to a proper understanding of mythology." He said in another letter that he was spending his evenings making "horoscopic calculations in order to find a clue to the core of psychological truth." Jung thought that in astrology he would find a kind of human knowledge that had been intuitively projected into the heavens.(13)
Jung continued to be interested in astrology up to his death in 1961. Again this is shown in his correspondence with others, including Hindu astrologer B.V. Raman and physicist Wolfgang Pauli. To these persons, and others, he explained his interest in astrology to be a means by which he could quantify his theories of synchronistic phenomena.
Jung's famous astrological experiment, in which he utilized several hundred horoscopes to study the interactions of Sun, Moon, Mars, Venus, and Ascendant in married people, turned out to be more than just an attempt to prove astrology. In his experiment, he initially found that Sun-Moon exchanges between married couples occurred more frequently than chance would allow, or so he thought. Swiss physicist Markus Fierz, who was an expert in statistical analysis, said they didn't. Jung realized that his sample was too small, and not even a random sample. Apparently, most of his charts were of people who knew something about astrology. His response to this predicament was to change the nature and definition of the experiment into a demonstration of how synchronistic events may occur. In other words, Jung saw the experiment as possibly being about the creation of synchronistic phenomena - his own creation of it. For him, proof of synchronicity took precedence over proof of astrology.
But Jung also knew that there were problems with his view that astrology was merely a manifestation of synchronicity. The major one was a contemporary discovery that solar radiation was influenced by alignments of the planets, and that this fact allowed for the prediction of magnetic storms that affected radio transmissions. Jung realized that if this were the case, then a causal explanation for astrology might be possible. This meant trouble for his theories, because if a causal explanation for astrology could be found, then synchronicity would be meaningless. He couldn't have it both ways.
In the early 1950s, Jung presented his work on synchronicity, including his astrological experiment, to the world. He considered this material to be some of his most advanced work, but it was not well-received. Scientists considered it statistically flawed and too mystical in nature. Jung was disappointed and later alluded to this aspect of his work as a kind of joke. Only after many years was his work on synchronicity to become influential to psychologists and astrologers. My thinking is that Jung was well in advance of his generation of thinkers on psychological metaphysics. He may have gone farther if he had been able to use today's emerging terminologies of subatomic physics, fractals, chaos theory, and formative causation to more fully describe his perception.
What we need now is an astrology hall of fame. This would include some of the above scientists as well as the great practicing astrologers of the ancient, medieval, and modern times.
References and Notes
(1) Pecking orders are necessary to ensure that the strongest and cleverest will succeed in transmitting their genetic material into future generations.
(2) Dates are listed here in both Old System (OS) and New System (NS) formats. The New System (Gregorian Calendar) dating system began on approximately October 15, 1582. In Lois Rodden's Astro-Data books, NS dates are shown and are accurately reflected in the charts found in the books. In the Blackwell Collection, dates shown are OS if they occur before the changeover date and without special notation. In casting charts in Solar Fire for dates prior to the beginning of the Gregorian Calendar, OS dates are assumed following the same convention as the Blackwell data. Since the dates on which various locations switched to the New System vary considerably, care must be taken in noting whether data prior to the beginning of the 19th century are recorded in OS or NS.
(3) Epicycles are cycles of planets around their own orbit. Ptolemy explained retrogradation by assuming that a planet actually orbited around an ideal point, which itself moved around the earth. In order to account for the complex movements of the planets, he needed 80 of these.
(4) Bruce Scofield, "The Uranian Observer," The Mountain Astrologer, March 1995, p. 65.
(5) A.C. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science, Volume II, New York: Anchor Books, 1959, pp. 174-75.
(6) A good biography of Tycho is J.L.E. Dreyer, Tycho Brahe: A Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the 16th Century, Dover Publications, 1963. Originally published in 1890.
(7) Apparently astrology is a kind of disease that scientists can catch. Astrological immunization is now compulsory and, today, few scientists ever contract it.
(8) This reference was taken from Nick Kollerstrom, Interface: Astronomical Essays for Astrologers, England: Ascella Publications, 1997, p. 27, where the reader will find the relevant information more accessible. The original source is Serena Foglia and Grazia Murti, "Gli 'Astrologia Nonulla' di Galileo," Linguaggio Astrale, Autumn 1992, pp. 5-45.
(9) Kollerstrom, "Galileo, Astrologer," Interface, pp. 27-37.
(10) Frankly, I feel the same way. I hope I never again have to read charts at a psychic fair.
(11) See Johannes Kepler, Concerning the More Certain Fundamentals of Astrology, New York: Clancy Publications, 1942; and Ken Negus, Kepler's Astrology: Excerpts, Princeton, NJ: Eucopia, 1987. (Note: Ken Negus is currently translating one of Kepler's most interesting writings, Third Party Intervening, which deals with the debate on astrology during his time.) One of the best books on Kepler is Arthur Koestler's The Watershed, New York: Anchor Books, 1960. This book is also contained in Koestler's larger work, The Sleepwalkers.
(12) Patrick Curry, Prophecy and Power: Astrology in Early Modern England, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989, p. 142.
(13) Much of my discussion on Jung and his astrological interests has been adapted from Steve Strimer, Relativity, Synchronicity, and Herschel's Uranus, Northampton, MA: Aldebaran Press, 1997. The primary sources for Jung and astrology are C.G. Jung Letters and Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, both published by Bollingen, Princeton, NJ, in 1973.
© 1998 Bruce Scofield - all rights reserved
Bruce Scofield is a practicing astrologer, lecturer, and author of several astrology books, as well as four hiking guides to mountains and natural areas of the Northeast. He writes for many astrology magazines and newsletters, and has self-published several of his own books, including two on Mesoamerican astrology. Write for catalog and information. You can contact him at P.O. Box 561, Amherst, MA 01004, (413) 253-9450. Or, visit him and Barry Orr at their Web site.
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